Art & Architecture in Nepal
Nepalese Art in time developed characteristics of its own. The reasons lay in the Nepal's geographic location and the extraordinary ingenuity of Nepalese Artists. Nepali art has been deeply influenced by religion since very early times.The country has something unique, which includes object made from mud to wood to brass and copper. No piece of handicraft is devoid of inherent meaning. In fact every piece has element of culture and identity and of course religion inwrought in it. Further, it is handicraft, which has preserved the culture. Another feature of Nepalese handicraft items is eroticism, which can he found in carvings on struts decorating temples. Stone carving goes to Lichhavi period. Similarly, the Malla period is known for woodcarvings.
In general traditional arts and architectures can be remarked as a fusion of both Hindu and Buddhist religion in Nepal. Nepalese traditional arts and architectures are totally dominant of Hindu and Buddhist religion philosophy which are reflected by various kind of painting images, statue sculpture of deities, temples, monasteries, old squares and other monuments. An understanding of Nepalese Art, Therefore, requires knowledge of these two religions, their nature, idiosyncrasies and development. The spread of Hinduism and Buddhism from the Indian subcontinent brought with it the strong influence along with.
Early art of Nepal can be seen as stone sculpture and temple architecture. Especially the Newars-the original inhabi tents of the Kathmandu valley Other art include Newari Paubha and Tibetan Thanka paintings, wood and metal crafts, ceramics and clay pots, textiles, paper, Tibetan carpet, music and literature. Contemporary Nepali art represents two distinct segments, traditional idealistic paintings and the contemporary western style works.In conclusion, a few comments on the Art forms in Nepal Stone Sculpture, bronze - casting, terra cotta sculpture and architecture, painting & temple construction. Nepali architecture or nepalese architecture is a unique strain of art and practicality. Situated in between the trade routes between th southern india and Northern Tibetan and Chinese empires,Nepali Architecture influences from both these cultural strongholds.The greatest achievements of the late Malla period lie in the field of architecture. The majority of pagodas, shrines, temples, and mediavel palaces in the Kathmandu more either mode or renovated during this period.Kathmandu Valley houses a number of museums and art galleries displaying art work of the past and present. Some are: The National Museum at Chhauni, Museums at Kathmandu Durbar Square, Museum of Natural History at Swayambhu, National Library at Puchowk, Kaiser Library at Thamel, National Birendra Art Gallery at Naxal, Asa Archives at Tangal, National Art Gallery at Bhaktapur Durbar Square, National Woodworking Museum at Bhaktapur.
In generally Nepalese traditional arts and architectures can be categories in three different respect architectures - Pagoda pattern, Stupa Pattern and Shikhar pattern as well arts are Buddhist Thanka paintings.
The Swayambhu and Boudhanath Shrines are Nepal's first examples of stupa orChaitya style. The Stupa Pattern of monuments and buildings are styled mainly hemispherical round shape in bottom and segmented part to part round up to top and decorated with images pattern of different sects of Buddhism atop. This style is purely Buddhist in concept and execution. The outstanding feature of stupas is a hemispherical mound topped by a square base supporting a seried of thirteen circular rings. Narrowing towards the top these are crowned by parasol. The four sides of the square base or the harmika, as it is called, are painted with pairs of mystic "all-seeing eyes." All the monasteries inside are panted very authentic style of arts which based on Buddhism philosophy.
The pagoda style of construction is most probably a creation of Nepalese architecture. The pagoda pattern of monuments and buildings are styled several layers roof with broad space of carved wood struts. he most popular sites to observe these pagoda patterns are Kathmandu’s Basantapur Durbar Square area, Taleju temple of Basantapur, Kashthamandap and temples of around, Patan Durbar Square area, Kumbheswor temple, and many temple of around, Bhaktapur Durbar Square area, popular Nyatapola temple and Datatraya temple, others Pashupatinath and Changu Narayan temples. Chinese travelers who visit Nepal in 7th century have left us their impressions in the ancient documents. They speak of magnificent palaces and temples of several stories and many roofs built one above the other. Therefore it could be easily concluded that buildings in the pagoda style were already in existence at that time.
The oldest preserved Nepalese paintings date from the 10th and 11th centuries A.D. Thanka paintings are very authentic traditional Buddhist cultural and religious artistic hand work of Nepal. These painted manuscript covers and the various manuscript illustrations display a high level of Artistic skill. The favorite colors of the Nepalese painters were yellow, white, indigo, lampblack, green and vermilion, the paints were made from plants earth and minerals. Some expensive and master piece images painted with the color mixed of gold and silver as well long time hard work.
The Shikhara style forms yet another architectural design found in Nepal. The Shikhar Pattern of architectural temple is very common monuments of Hindu shrine. The super-structure of this style is a tall curvilinear or pyramidal tower whose surface is broken up vertically into five or nine sections. The final section consists of a bell-shaped part at the top. In Nepal this type of patterned construction can be seen at Patan Durbar Square area which is known as famous Krishna temple as well some are at Pashupatinath temple area and some Hindu temples of Kathmandu valley.
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